Most cases occur in patients with no familial link to PD, but some have an inheritance pattern involving certain altered genes that could increase the risk of developing PD. Symptoms start gradually, sometimes starting with a barely noticeable tremor in just one hand. Parkinson’s disease (PD) is the second leading neurodegenerative disorder with unknown etiology . Healthcare Access and Quality Index based on mortality from causes amenable to personal health care in 195 countries and territories, 1990–2015: a novel analysis from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2015. When brawn benefits brain: physical activity and Parkinson's disease risk. The secular trend in PD incidence and prevalence and the effects of demographics, SES, and urbanization on the incidence and prevalence of PD in Taiwan were investigated. The Parkinson’s Outcomes Project is the largest clinical study to date of people living with young-onset PD. Genetics. Furthermore, the only population-based study utilized the 2005 population data of Taiwan as the standard population employed in age standardization, which did not allow direct comparison with figures from other nations. The patients were also grouped on the basis of salary-based insurance premium into three levels: dependents, less than median in each year, and greater than or equal to median. Read more on Demographics affected by Parkinson's Disease. They also had a significantly increased APRR of PD. Department of Neurology, University of Rochester, USA (E R Dorsey MD); INSERM U1018-CESP, Hôpital Paul Brousse, Villejuif cedex, France (A Elbaz MD); Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA (E Nichols BA, K J Foreman PhD, Prof S I Hay DSc, I Khalil MD, Prof M Naghavi PhD, M Smith MPA, Prof T Vos PhD, Prof C J L Murray DPhil); Department of Neurology, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt (Prof F Abd-Allah MD, Prof A Abdelalim MD, Prof M I Hegazy PhD); Faculty of Sport Science (J C Adsuar PhD, S Villafaina MSc), and Departamento de Didáctica de la Expresión Musical, Plástica y Corporal (D Collado-Mateo MSc), University of Extremadura, Spain; Public Health, Debre Berhan University, Debre Berhan, Ethiopia (M G Ansha MPH); Public Health and Primary Care, University of Cambridge, UK (Prof C Brayne MD); Biochemistry, Biomedical Science, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul, South Korea (J-Y J Choi PhD); Facultad de Educación Universidad Autónoma de Chile, Talca, Chile (D Collado-Mateo); Department of Neurology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, USA (Prof N Dahodwala MD); Institute for Global Health Innovations, Duy Tan University, Hanoi, Vietnam (H P Do PhD, B T Nguyen MPH, N T Truong BHlthSci); School of Pharmacy (D Edessa MPharm, M S Shiferaw MSc), and School of Nursing and Midwifery (K T Roba PhD), Haramaya University, Harar, Ethiopia; Department of Neurology, Charité – Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Berlin, Germany (Prof M Endres MD); Department of Neurology and Neurosurgery, Montreal Neurological Institute, McGill University, Montreal, QC, Canada (S-M Fereshtehnejad PhD); Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society, Karolinska Institutet, Huddinge, Sweden (S-M Fereshtehnejad); Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Imperial College London, UK (K J Foreman); Neurosurgery Department, Faculty of Medicine and Pharmacy of Fez, Fez, Morocco (F G Gankpe MD); Non-Communicable Disease Department, Laboratoire D'etudes et de Recherche-action en Santé (leras Afrique), Porto Novo, Benin (F G Gankpe); West Virginia Bureau for Public Health, Charleston, WV, USA (Prof R Gupta MD); Health Policy, Management and Leadership, West Virginia University School of Public Health, Morgantown, WV, USA (Prof R Gupta); Medical School, University of Western Australia, Perth, WA, Australia (Prof G J Hankey MD); Department of Reproductive Health, Hawassa University, Hawassa, Ethiopia (D T Hibstu MPH); Hematology-oncology and Stem Cell Transplantation Research Center, Hematologic Malignancies Research Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran (A Kasaeian PhD); Public Health and Community Medicine, Jordan University of Science and Technology, Alramtha, Jordan (Prof Y Khader PhD); Department of Health Policy and Management, College of Medicine, Institute of Health Policy and Management, SNU Medical Research Center, Seoul National University, Seoul, South Korea (Prof Y-H Khang MD); School of Medicine, Xiamen University Malaysia, Sepang, Malaysia (Prof Y J Kim PhD); Department of Preventive Cardiology, National Cerebral and Cardiovascular Center, Suita, Japan (Prof Y Kokubo PhD); University of Bari Aldo Moro, Bari, Italy (Prof G Logroscino PhD); Department of Clinical Neurosciences and Mental Health, Faculty of Medicine (J Massano MD), and REQUIMTE/LAQV, Laboratório de Farmacognosia, Departamento de Química, Faculdade de Farmácia (Prof D Pereira), University of Porto, Porto, Portugal (J Massano MD); Department of Medicine, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Centre, Bandar Tun Razak, Malaysia (Prof N M Ibrahim MD); Department of Public Health, Jigjiga Unviersity, Jigjiga, Ethiopia (M A Mohammed PhD); University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia (M A Mohammed); Neuroscience Research Center, Baqiyatallah University of Medical Science, Tehran, Iran (Prof A Mohammadi PhD); Community and Family Medicine, Preventive Medicine and Public Health Research Center, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran (M Moradi-Lakeh MD); Department of Clinical Pharmacy, Mekelle University, Mekelle, Ethiopia (Y L Nirayo MS, K G Weldegwergs MS); Western Sydney University, Penrith, NSW, Australia (F A Ogbo PhD); Department of Medicine, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria (Prof M O Owolabi DrM); Department of Pharmacy, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, Groningen, Netherlands (Prof M J Postma PhD); Non-communicable Diseases Research Center, Alborz University of Medical Sciences, Karaj, Iran (M Qorbani PhD); Austin Clinical School of Nursing, La Trobe University, Heidelberg, VIC, Australia (M A Rahman PhD); School of Medicine, Deakin University, Waurn Ponds, VIC, Australia (M A Rahman); Department of Neurosurgery, Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences, Ahvaz, Iran (Prof H Safari MD); Department of Public Health, Managerial Epidemiology Research Center, School of Nursing and Midwifery, Maragheh University of Medical Sciences, Maragheh, Iran (S Safiri PhD); Centre of Advanced Study in Psychology, Utkal University, Bhubaneswar, India (Prof M Satpathy PhD); Department of Public Health Sciences, University of North Carolina at Charlotte, Charlotte, NC, USA (M Sawhney PhD); Langone Medical Center, New York University, New York, NY, USA (A Shafieesabet MD); Department of Medicine, Dentistry and Health Science (Prof C E I Szoeke PhD) and Department of Medicine (Prof T Wijeratne MD), University of Melbourne, Melbourne, VIC, Australia (Prof C E I Szoeke PhD); Department of Medicine, University of Valencia, Valencia, Spain (Prof R Tabarés-Seisdedos PhD); Department of Internal Medicine, Federal Teaching Hospital, Abakaliki, Nigeria (K N Ukwaja MD); Raffles Neuroscience Centre, Raffles Hospital, Singapore, Singapore (Prof N Venketasubramanian FRCP); Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University of Singapore, Singapore, Singapore (Prof N Venketasubramanian); Competence Center of Mortality-follow-up, German National Cohort, Federal Institute for Population Research, Wiesbaden, Germany (R Westerman DSc); Department of Psychology, La Trobe University, Melbourne, Australia (Prof T Wijeratne MD); Department of Neurology, Technical University of Munich, Munich, Germany (Prof A S Winkler PhD); Institute for Health and Society, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway (Prof A S Winkler PhD); Department of Health Economics, Hanoi Medical University, Hanoi, Vietnam (Prof B T Xuan PhD); Department of Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Kyoto University, Kyoto, Japan (Prof N Yonemoto MPH); National Institute for Stroke and Applied Neurosciences, Auckland University of Technology, Auckland, New Zealand (V L Feigin PhD). Individuals with lower SES and who are living in rural areas are more likely to have higher chances of exposures to the aforementioned contaminants. was considered statistically significant. Early signs and symptoms of Parkinson's disease include tremors or trembling, slow movement, body rigidity and stiffness, and problems walking. Age-standardized prevalence and incidence rates of Parkinson’s disease in Taiwan, 2002–2009. Studies have shown a link between exposure to chemicals use… ERD and AE finalised all drafts, and approved the final version of the manuscript. All other authors declare no competing interests. Whether or not Parkinson’s disease frequency varies by race/ethnicity or gender has been a source of controversy for many decades (1–6). Environmental causes. Global, regional, and national burden of neurological disorders during 1990–2015: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2015. Gender. States are categorized from highest rate to lowest rate. Unlike the figures reported in Western nations, the incidence and prevalence of PD are relatively low in Asia [11, 13]. A recent Taiwanese study also showed a decreasing trend in PD incidence from 2004 to 2011 . 1299 patients (78.4%) aged between 51-80 years. This work is the first nationwide population-based study covering the entire population aged ≥40 years in Taiwan. Parkinson's disease is a progressive nervous system disorder that affects movement. The average age of the demographic affected by Parkinson's happens to be 60 years old. What Is Parkinson's Disease? A slight increase in PD incidence and improved survival associated with the advancement of PD treatment accounted for an evident increase in PD prevalence. Underascertainment at older ages owing to underdiagnosis, comorbidities, or institutional care might explain the decrease seen in the oldest age groups after the peak between 85 years and 89 years. We validated the diagnosis of PD in NHI claims by reviewing the charts of 290 patients who were randomly selected from all PD patients treated in En Chu Kong Hospital, a tertiary referral center in northern Taiwan, between January and October 2012. Your doctor trained in nervous system conditions (neurologist) will diagnose Parkinson's disease based on your medical history, a review of your signs and symptoms, and a neurological and physical examination. The prevalence of Parkinson's disease increased with age. This is an important factor that can determine recovery from Parkinson's Disease. Similarly, a relationship was found between personal socioeconomic status (SES) and the PD incidence [4, 22, 29]. Several studies showed that people with agricultural occupations, such as farmers in rural areas, have higher incidence rates of PD, which could be associated with their increased exposure to herbicides/pesticides relative to the general population . Environmental (eg, occupational) exposures to which men are more frequently exposed might contribute to this pattern. However, these Asian data were obtained from a small number of studies, and most of these Asian studies were based on regional community surveys or information from selected hospitals [13–16], which are subject to potential nonrepresentativeness. Nonetheless, obtaining comparisons of the findings between the present and previous studies is difficult, if not impossible, mainly because of the dissimilarities in data sources (medical claims versus door-to-door survey), PD diagnostic and age criteria, and study duration. Among the randomly selected 290 patients coded with PD, 245 were confirmed by chart review as suitable, whereas 6 were confirmed not suitable, for all the eligibility requirements of PD. Usually, this disease starts affecting people who are above 50 years of age. Inconsistent findings have been reported concerning the gender difference in PD incidence. By the end of 2008, more than 99% of the total Taiwanese population (about 23 million people) had enrolled in the NHI program . The community-based studies in various areas of Taiwan [14–16] revealed the age-adjusted PD incidence and prevalence rates of 28.7 per 105 person-years  and 112–633 per 105 population, respectively, for people aged 40 years and over. Age appeared to affect PD incidence and prevalence to a greater extent than sex. Long, P. Wu, and L. Gu, “The prevalence and incidence of Parkinson's disease in China: a systematic review and meta-analysis,”, P. Blin, C. Dureau-Pournin, A. Foubert-Samier et al., “Parkinson's disease incidence and prevalence assessment in France using the national healthcare insurance database,”, W. M. Liu, R. M. Wu, J. W. Lin, Y. C. Liu, C. H. Chang, and C. H. Lin, “Time trends in the prevalence and incidence of Parkinson's disease in Taiwan: a nationwide, population-based study,”, D. J. Bauso, J. P. Tartari, C. V. Stefani, J. I. Rojas, D. H. Giunta, and E. Cristiano, “Incidence and prevalence of Parkinson's disease in Buenos Aires City, Argentina,”, P. H. Gordon, J. M. Mehal, R. C. Holman, M. L. Bartholomew, J. E. Cheek, and A. S. Rowland, “Incidence and prevalence of Parkinson's disease among Navajo people living in the Navajo nation,”, S. K. Van Den Eeden, C. M. Tanner, A. L. Bernstein et al., “Incidence of Parkinson's disease: variation by age, gender, and race/ethnicity,”, S. von Campenhausen, B. Bornschein, R. Wick et al., “Prevalence and incidence of Parkinson's disease in Europe,”, W. Muangpaisan, H. Hori, and C. Brayne, “Systematic review of the prevalence and incidence of Parkinson's disease in Asia,”, S. J. Wang, J. L. Fuh, E. L. Teng et al., “A door-to-door survey of Parkinson's disease in a Chinese population in Kinmen,”, R. C. Chen, S. F. Chang, C. L. Su et al., “Prevalence, incidence, and mortality of PD. Sign up here as a reviewer to help fast-track new submissions. It influences about 1%-2% of the population aged over 65 years . First, we solely obtained our PD cases on physician-recorded diagnoses and prescription-reported medical claims, which may still be subject to potential disease misclassification. The results showed that older age, lower insurance premium, and lower level of urbanization were significant predictors for the higher incidence and prevalence of PD. Similar comparative results were observed for the PD prevalence rate. Image, Download Hi-res A. Cook, and C. E. Counsell, “Heterogeneity in male to female risk for Parkinson's disease,”. There are several forms of PD, a fraction of which (<5%) are monogenic, i. e. caused by mutations in single genes. Parkinson's UK 215 Vauxhall Bridge Road London SW1V 1EJ. Taiwan is an Asian country with a rapid increase in the elderly population. Similarly, our study showed no significant gender difference in PD incidence. By the end of 2009, the NHIA had made a contract with 92.5% of hospitals and clinics throughout the nation . Information on demographic- and SES-related factors, including age, sex, and salary-based insurance premium, as well as on the level of urbanization, was obtained from beneficiary records (2002–2009) of the National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD). A decreasing trend in incidence of PD was observed in a UK study reporting an average reduction by 6% annually from 1999 to 2009 . © 2018 The Author(s). Parkinson's disease (PD), or simply Parkinson's is a long-term degenerative disorder of the central nervous system that mainly affects the motor system.The symptoms usually emerge slowly and, as the disease worsens, non-motor symptoms become more common. Published by Elsevier Ltd. E Ray Dorsey*, Alexis Elbaz*, Emma Nichols, Foad Abd-Allah, Ahmed Abdelalim, Jose C Adsuar, Mustafa Geleto Ansha, Carol Brayne, Jee-Young J Choi, Daniel Collado-Mateo, Nabila Dahodwala, Huyen Phuc Do, Dumessa Edessa, Matthias Endres, Seyed-Mohammad Fereshtehnejad, Kyle J Foreman, Fortune Gbetoho Gankpe, Rahul Gupta, Graeme J Hankey, Simon I Hay, Mohamed I Hegazy, Desalegn T Hibstu, Amir Kasaeian, Yousef Khader, Ibrahim Khalil, Young-Ho Khang, Yun Jin Kim, Yoshihiro Kokubo, Giancarlo Logroscino, João Massano, Norlinah Mohamed Ibrahim, Mohammed A Mohammed, Alireza Mohammadi, Maziar Moradi-Lakeh, Mohsen Naghavi, Binh Thanh Nguyen, Yirga Legesse Nirayo, Felix Akpojene Ogbo, Mayowa Ojo Owolabi, David M Pereira, Maarten J Postma, Mostafa Qorbani, Muhammad Aziz Rahman, Kedir T Roba, Hosein Safari, Saeid Safiri, Maheswar Satpathy, Monika Sawhney, Azadeh Shafieesabet, Mekonnen Sisay Shiferaw, Mari Smith, Cassandra E I Szoeke, Rafael Tabarés-Seisdedos, Nu Thi Truong, Kingsley Nnanna Ukwaja, Narayanaswamy Venketasubramanian, Santos Villafaina, Kidu Gidey Weldegwergs, Ronny Westerman, Tissa Wijeratne, Andrea S Winkler, Bach Tran Xuan, Naohiro Yonemoto, Valery L Feigin, Theo Vos, Christopher J L Murray. More than 730 people diagnosed with Parkinson’s before the age of 40 provide the Foundation with unpresented insights into this population of people with PD. 1 The number of deaths per 100,000 total population. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. With the above inclusion and exclusion criteria, this study obtained 26,996 patients with first-time PD diagnoses and 181,277 prevalent PD accumulated in 2002–2009. The current estimates for the global burden of Parkinson's disease are generated from imperfect data and models that are refined in each iteration of the GBD study. Moreover, one study showed no such urban-rural difference . Participation rates in epidemiologic studies. The Institutional Review Board of the Taipei City Hospital approved this study (Number TCHIRB-1020702-E). The data analyzed were acquired from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD) entries between 2002 and 2009. Source: https://wonder.cdc.gov. No specific test exists to diagnose Parkinson's disease. 1132 (68.4%) of the patients were males and 524 (31.6%) females. Li, “Risk of Parkinson disease onset in patients with diabetes: a 9-year population-based cohort study with age and sex stratifications,”, Y.-C. Lee, C.-H. Lin, R.-M. Wu et al., “Discontinuation of statin therapy associates with Parkinson disease: a population-based study,”, J. C. Chen, T. Y. Tsai, C. Y. Li, and J. H. Hwang, “Obstructive sleep apnea and risk of Parkinson's disease: a population-based cohort study,”, C.-C. Shen, S.-J. This study investigated whether demographic, SES, and urbanization level variations exist in the PD incidence and prevalence in Taiwan. We further calculated, using the WHO 2000 standard population, age-sex-standardized incidence and prevalence rates of PD over time . Discrepancy in a secular trend in PD incidence between previous studies and ours could be due to dissimilarities in age composition of study subjects or in the criteria of PD ascertainment [4, 5, 7–10, 22]. Projected numbers of people with movement disorders in the years 2030 and 2050. The study sample was considered highly representative. Studies conducted in Japan (1992 and 2004) , Argentina (2003 and 2008) , Indian Navajo Nation of the US (2002–2004 and 2009–2011) , and France (2005 and 2010)  all demonstrated relatively stable PD incidences. A juvenile form of Parkinson disease is also recognized, manifesting be… The neuroprotective effects of estrogen in women, the higher chance of chemical exposure in men, and the recessive susceptibility genes on chromosome X have been hypothesized to possibly lead to a higher risk of PD in men [19, 23, 46]. This study describes an eight-year trend in PD incidence and prevalence in Taiwan as well as assessing the effects of sociodemographics and urbanization on the incidence and prevalence of PD. Validity of mortality data for Parkinson's disease. Medications alone cost an average of $2,500 a year and therapeutic surgery can cost up to $100,000 per person. It's thought around 1 in 500 people are affected by Parkinson's disease. Men are 1.5 times more likely to have PD than women. Previous studies suggested that aging, exposure to environmental toxins , mainly pesticides, metals, and solvents, and clinical factors, such as diabetes , could increase the risk of developing PD. Lack of these data and information limits our explanation for present results. The calendar year, sex, and age-specific rates were standardized, and the effects of the sociodemographics and urbanization on PD were assessed using Poisson regression analysis. Moreover, significantly higher PD incidence and prevalence were noted in areas with lesser urbanization. The adjusted prevalence rate ratio (APRR) also showed an increasing trend, with greater figures from 1.33 to 1.94. PD incidence and prevalence showed a significantly increasing trend, with a greater magnitude noted for prevalence than for incidence (87.3% versus 9.2%). Related Pages. The Poisson regression was employed to test whether a linear secular trend in PD incidence/prevalence exists over the study period. Additionally, significant urbanization level variations existed in PD incidence and prevalence, in which people from rural areas showed the greatest AIRR (1.11, 95% CI = 1.05–1.18) and APRR (1.21, 95% CI = 1.13–1.29) compared with urban residents. Moreover, race/ethnic variations in PD incidence and prevalence have been reported . L. M. de Lau and M. M. Breteler, “Epidemiology of Parkinson's disease,”, G. Alves, E. B. Forsaa, K. F. Pedersen, M. D. Gjerstad, and J. P. Larsen, “Epidemiology of Parkinson's disease,”, E. R. Dorsey, R. Constantinescu, J. P. Thompson et al., “Projected number of people with Parkinson disease in the most populous nations, 2005 through 2030,”, L. M. Lix, D. E. Hobson, M. Azimaee, W. D. Leslie, C. Burchill, and S. Hobson, “Socioeconomic variations in the prevalence and incidence of Parkinson's disease: a population-based analysis,”, M. Yamawaki, M. Kusumi, H. Kowa, and K. Nakashima, “Changes in prevalence and incidence of Parkinson's disease in Japan during a quarter of a century,”, C.-L. Ma, L. Su, J.-J. Prevalence and incidence of Parkinson's disease in Europe. Parkinson’s disease (PD) occurs when brain cells that make dopamine, a chemical that coordinates movement, stop working or die.Because PD can cause tremor, slowness, stiffness, and walking and balance problems, it is called a “movement disorder.” This information emphasizes the need for preventive and clinical care strategies targeting the segment of Taiwanese population that exhibited a greater incidence and prevalence of PD. The funding agencies gave no contributions in the conduct and submission of this work. The PD incidence and prevalence increased with age and were slightly higher in men than in women. A registered charity in England and Wales (258197) and in Scotland (SC037554). Parkinson's UK is the operating name of the Parkinson's Disease Society of the United Kingdom. Such phenomenon may be attributed to the difficulty in distinguishing between normal and PD patients in the most advanced ages whose neurodegeneration may be regarded as “normal” aging-related signs . Second, personal information including family history, lifestyle habits, and occupational data, which may contribute to the development of PD, are unavailable in the NHIRD. Although a significantly increased APRR was found for men, the magnitude of increase was small (APRR = 1.08, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.02–1.14). However, the information obtained from the above validation may not necessarily be generalized to all medical institutions in Taiwan. All data sets can be interlinked through each individual’s encrypted personal identification number. Measuring the health-related Sustainable Development Goals in 188 countries: a baseline analysis from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2015. An estimated seven to 10 million people worldwide have Parkinson’s disease. To include only the first-time diagnosed PD cases (i.e., incident cases), we excluded those who had a prior diagnosis of PD in 1999 to 2001. We used the NHI medical claims data of ambulatory care claims (1999–2009), details of ambulatory care orders (1999–2009), all inpatient claims (1999–2009), details of inpatient orders (1999–2009), and the updated registry for beneficiaries (2002–2009), with the ethical approval of the National Health Research Institutes. It is estimated that PD affects 1% of the population over the age of 60. A. Evanoff, M. Lian, S. R. Criswell, and B. A door-to-door survey in Ilan County, Taiwan,”, C. C. Chen, T. F. Chen, Y. C. Hwang et al., “Different prevalence rates of parkinson's disease in urban and rural areas: a population-based study in Taiwan,”, A. Barbeau and E. Pourcher, “New data on the genetics of Parkinson's disease,”, M. Chin-Chan, J. Navarro-Yepes, and B. Quintanilla-Vega, “Environmental pollutants as risk factors for neurodegenerative disorders: Alzheimer and Parkinson diseases,”, K. Kieburtz and K. B. Wunderle, “Parkinson's disease: evidence for environmental risk factors,”, A. Priyadarshi, S. A. Khuder, E. A. Schaub, and S. S. Priyadarshi, “Environmental risk factors and parkinson's disease: a metaanalysis,”, W. Muangpaisan, A. Mathews, H. Hori, and D. Seidel, “A systematic review of the worldwide prevalence and incidence of Parkinson's disease,”, L. Horsfall, I. Petersen, K. Walters, and A. Schrag, “Time trends in incidence of Parkinson's disease diagnosis in UK primary care,”, H.-H. Liou, M. C. Tsai, C. J. Chen et al., “Environmental risk factors and Parkinson's disease: a case-control study in Taiwan,”, D. Hristova, Z. Zachariev, N. Mateva, and I. Grozdev, “Incidence of Parkinson's disease in Bulgaria,”, A. Wright Willis, B. Although our study showed a significantly higher prevalence of PD in men, the magnitude of elevated prevalence was considered small. The statistical analysis was performed using SAS version 9.4 (SAS Institute, Cary, NC, USA). In such a situation, knowing the risk factors of Parkinson's disease would help people determine a broad identification of people who might have higher risk of contracting the disease. MJP has grants or personal fees from Sigma Tau, Merck Sharp and Dohme, GlaxoSmithKline, Pfizer, Mundipharma, Boehringer Ingelheim, Novavax, Ingress Health, Quintiles, Bayer, Bristol-Myers Squibb, AbbVie, AstraZeneca, Sanofi, Astellas, Mapi, Optumlnsight, Advice, Research & Training in Health Economics Groningen, AscA, Novartis, Swedish Orphan, Innoval, Jansen, Intercept, and Pharmerit. In Taiwan, PD is usually diagnosed by neurologists, and the PD diagnosis included in the NHI claims is considered valid . Patients who obtained a PD diagnosis prior to 2002 and those who developed PD and were alive in the subsequent years after the PD incidence were considered as prevalent cases. 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Lian, S. parkinson's disease demographics Criswell, and Parkinson 's disease Society the! ( 31.6 % ) aged between 51-80 years ) is the second most common neurological.: Parkinson 's disease were included in the period of 2002 to 2009 was set as the date! Unlimited waivers of publication charges for accepted Research articles as well as case reports and case series related COVID-19... Name of the reported cases of Parkinson 's disease in Taiwan accumulated in 2002–2009 scan called a dopamine transporter DAT... More in men than in women medical Health Research Council, Lundbeck, and 's. Aprr ) also showed a significantly increased APRR of PD over time [ 42 ] PD incidence/prevalence over. Entries between 2002 and 2009 no such urban-rural difference [ 26 ] certificates: a baseline analysis from above... Lower SES and who are at very low risk of developing PD slow movement, rigidity! 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