banana xanthomonas wilt treatment

The disease starts with wilting of leaves or male bud and premature ripening of fruits leading to death of plant and rotting of fruits. Fusarium wilt control in bananas depends largely on cultural methods to prevent spread, as effective chemical and biological treatments aren’t yet available. Yield losses of up to 100% have been reported in the ECA region. Banana Xanthomonas Wilt (BXW) is an important emerging and non-curable infectious plant pathogen in sub-Saharan Africa that can cause up to 100% yield loss, negatively impacting sustainable access to food and income to more than 100 million banana farmers. A Combination of FFW, Seed Fairs, Eradication, Training & Education. Xanthomonas wilt is a major constraint to banana production in the East and Central Africa. 2). GM banana has a potential to control the destructive banana Xanthomonas wilt disease. Transmission means of the bacterium Xanthomonas campestris pv. Since the first disease reports from Uganda and the Democratic Republic of Congo in 2001, BXW has been studied widely., Article  This article incorporates text from a free content work. Do not use suckers from banana plants affected by BXW, even if the suckers appear healthy; Remove male buds by hand or with a forked stick. Vigilance and the quick removal of infected plants remain critical to minimising spread of the disease. Banana bacterial wilt (BBW) / Banana xanthomonas wilt (BXW) Xanthomonas campestris pv. CABI, London, pp 101–107. During the initial years of the Xanthomonas wilt epidemic in East Africa, the complete uprooting of diseased mats and the burning or burying of plant debris was advocated as part of a control package which included the use of clean garden tools and early removal of … To assess the source of knowledge about the disease, the farmers were asked to mention sources that provided them the information on Xanthomonas wilt disease in a list of 15 possible sources (agronomists, brochures, extension officers, fellow farmers, local leaders, Ministry of Agriculture (MINAGRI), newspapers, non-government organizations (NGOs), parents or other relatives, posters, Rwanda Agriculture Board (RAB) scientists, researchers, radio, television, and training). Logistic regression calculates the probability of a given binary outcome (response) as a function of the independent variables (Everitt and Hothorn 2006). Transmission of contaminated disease itself is thought to be low. Globally, the crop is mostly known for producing sweet dessert fruits, but in East Africa many cultivars are grown for their starchy fruits that are roasted or cooked and cultivars with bitter and astringent fruits that are used for brewing beer (Karamura et al., Tooker JF, Frank SD (2012) Genotypically diverse cultivar mixtures for insect pest management and increased crop yields. [11] If the disease has been transmitted by insects the symptoms tend to first appear on the male buds of the banana plant. 4. BXW can sometimes be confused with Fusarium wilt – this differs to BXW as in contrast it causes yellowing on older leaves and does not cause abnormal fruit development. Furthermore, the 'Bluggoe' (ABB) cooking banana variety that is known to be particularly susceptible to insect transmission of Moko, Bugtok and Blood diseases (see elsewhere in this Compendium) is also frequently the first variety to be affected as Xanthomonas wilt spreads into new areas. This could be attributed to the fact that nearly every farmer in these areas has a banana field, which helps the bacteria to spread rapidly across farms (Fig. 39, 22 (2019). Currently, the banana Xanthomonas wilt disease caused by Xanthomonas campestris pv. 2009) (Fig. If the information providers have wrong or incomplete information, the shared information is incorrect. Impara agro-ecological zone was only surveyed in 2016. Abstract : Banana Xanthomonas wilt (BXW), caused by the bacterium Xanthomonas campestris pv. volume 39, Article number: 22 (2019) These include the particular cultivar infected, how the disease has been transmitted and the current growing season. Among the agricultural extension officers that provided information to the farmers include the facilitators in agriculture and farmer promoters who operate under the “Twigire muhinzi” extension program already in place in Rwanda (Anonymous 2016). Low awareness of Xanthomonas campestris pv. Previously it was African J Plant Sci 8(8):398–404. Plant Pathol 59(2):403., Everitt B, Hothorn T (2006) Logistic regression and generalised linear models: blood screening, women's role in society, and colonic polyps. National Institute of Statistics of Rwanda. CABI, London, pp 116–124, Shimwela MM, Ploetz RC, Beed FD, Jones JB, Blackburn JK, Mkulila SI, Van Bruggen AH (2016) Banana Xanthomonas wilt continues to spread in Tanzania despite an intensive symptomatic plant removal campaign: an impending socio-economic and ecological disaster. Plant Dis 93(5):440–451. Similarly, some farmers expect immediate results from disease control practices; if that is not the case, they drop the implementation of control measures (Tinzaara et al. Before the advent of BXW major biotic constraints were black leaf streak (Sigatoka), Fusarium wilt, bunchy top and streak viruses, weevils and nematodes. High incidence of Xanthomonas wilt (≥ 30%) was positively associated with major banana growing zones, intercropping system, brewing banana type, and dense and moderate spacing. 2013). To learn how to add open license text to Wikipedia articles, please see this how-to page. It was estimated that in Central Uganda from 2001 and 2004, there was a 30-52 % decrease in banana yield due to BXW infection. Eur J Plant Pathol 149(2):385–400. We also report for the first time that fields with a mixture of indigenous and improved cultivars are likely to have low Xanthomonas wilt disease severity (p < 0.005), and this could be considered in banana Xanthomonas wilt management package. Caused by the bacterium X. campestris pv. These farmer field school facilitators and farmer promoters reach a big number of farmers, speak in their language, and sensitize farmers in several aspects of good farming practices (Anonymous 2016). Symptoms normally appear within 3 weeks after infection, although the time taken to reach different stages of symptom expression may differ depending on the cultivar, plant growth stage, mode of disease transmission and environmental conditions. you are unable to locate the licence and re-use information, 2013; Tinzaara et al. 2008). Xanthomonas wilt incidence was two times lower in pure stand than in intercropped banana (Table 1). Xanthomonas Wilt of Banana and Enset. Moreover, local leaders and agronomists, who are also shown as important providers of information to farmers in this study, need to be well equipped with a complete package of information about Xanthomonas wilt management or any other emerging disease, and they should be facilitated with a specific budget in order to reach the farmers on time. The single model tested the association of each independent variable alone with the disease incidence or severity. musacearum bacteria is transmitted to airborne vectors through exposed male flowers (see plant reproductive morphology). The pathogen's rapid spread has threatened the livelihood of millions of Africans who rely on banana fruit for food security and income. A previous study showed the distribution, incidence, and farmer knowledge of banana Xanthomonas wilt in Rwanda during 2009–2010 (Night et al. Banana Xanthomonas wilt (BXW), caused by the bacterium Xanthomonas campestris pv. The ‘pv.’ stands for pathovar and indicates a particular type of X. campestris that only infects banana and its close relative ensete. Farm tools and insects were identified as the major transmission means for the Xanthomonas wilt causing pathogen (Tinzaara et al. Akaike H (1974) A new look at the statistical model identification. Common symptoms on the fruit include internal discoloration and premature ripening of the fruit. 2008). The large majority of respondent farmers (> 70%) were aware of uprooting infected bananas and removal of the male bud to control Xanthomonas wilt, while 78% and 65% farmers implement the removal of symptomatic plants and the male buds respectively to manage the disease (Table 2 A and B). 2008). Since 2001, Xvm has also been responsible for significant losses to banana crops in several East and Central African countries, with devastating consequences for smallholder farmers. These findings are in agreement with another study that intercropped bananas are more prone to Xanthomonas wilt disease (Ocimati et al. The two proteins induced a hypersensitive response and systemic acquired resistance within the banana plant after being exposed to the bacterial pathogen. Thirteen independent variables were used and categorized into variable classes. IEEE Trans Automat Contr 19(6):716–723. The bacterium is spread by everything that gets in contact with an infected banana, such as insects and birds sucking nectars or feeding on ripen fruits, grazing animals, cutting tools, and unintentional moving of infected soils on boots, symptomless infected suckers, or marketed infected banana. There are projects on strengthening pest and disease capacities on diagnostic, surveillance, and management, especially with banana Xanthomonas wilt (BXW), banana bacterial wilt (BBW), Enset wilt (a bacterial disease caused by Xanthomonas campestris pv. However, considering severe impact of the disease, keeping track of its status and farmers’ knowledge over time would help to understand the factors responsible of its continual spread or persistence. Male bud symptoms are firstly observed if an infection has occurred via the male inflorescence part, while leaf wilting symptoms are the first to be observed if the infection occurred via other plant parts such as roots, corm, leaf sheaths and leaves. These findings indicate the need to improve the information distribution channels and the quality of information used, to ensure that the accurate information reaches the farmers who are the final implementers. A bacterial ooze is excreted from the plant organs and this is a mandatory sign that BXW may be present. For Res Pap 74(4):345–355. musacearum (Xcm). The results show that Xanthomonas wilt was present in all surveyed districts with high incidence (above 45% in both 2015 and 2016) in major banana growing areas, highlighting the risk of increasing yield losses., Yirgou D, Bradbury J (1974) A note on wilt of banana caused by the enset wilt organism Xanthomonas musacearum. For instance, the avoidance of exchanging planting materials is practiced by 73 to 87% farmers in major banana growing districts and 20% farmers in Huye but not implemented in other districts. Acta Hortic 879:749–755. - The CABI-led programme Plantwise recommends in addition to removing infected plants and cleaning tools, to prevent further infections by limiting the distribution of fruits to BXW-free areas to reduce the risk of spread, and limiting the movement of animals in banana plantations. Text taken from Plantwise Factsheets for Farmers: Controlling bacterial wilt of enset using cultural methods, Melese Haile, Yifru Hailegiorgis, Leulseged Mekonen, CABI. (2013) that most farmers in Rwanda could detect Xanthomonas wilt by looking at wilting leaves and premature ripening of the fruits. In multiple models, the association of each independent variable with disease incidence or severity was tested when entered last into the model with all other independent variables. This will cause considerable impact on food security and call for reinforcement of disease management and information distribution. XW, first reported in Ethiopia in 1968 (Yirgou & Bradbury, 1968, 2013) and has spread to new areas. Open questions included farmers’ knowledge on disease detection, spread, and management. musacearum bacteria has been isolated from the ooze and nectar excreted from openings of fallen male flowers. East Afr Agric For J 40(1):111–114. 1). Afr Crop Sci J 16(1):1–8. The association we found that cultivars mixture is associated with low severity of Xanthomonas wilt is useful for developing sustainable management strategy for the disease. musacearum in the banana plant after garden tool-mediated infection. musacearum), causative organism of banana Xanthomonas wilt, in Tanzania, Kenya and Burundi. X. vasicola pv.Musacearum (formerly Xanthomonas campestris pv musacearum) causes Banana Xanthomonas wilt (BXW) also known as banana bacterial wilt (BBW) and its close relative ensete (Valentine et al., 2006).Xvm is a gram-negative rod-shaped … This study showed a significant association of Xanthomonas wilt severity with the type of banana cultivars (p = 0.005), where the severity was three and seven times lower in farms with a mixture of both indigenous and improved cultivars compared with farms with either improved or indigenous cultivars alone, respectively (Table 1). This agrees with the finding that proper implementation of management practices by the farmers remains limited. Here, we demonstrate for the first time the gravity of Xanthomonas wilt in major banana growing areas of Rwanda. BXW is a major disease in Ethiopia and Uganda and can result in 70-100% losses of enset.[5]. It was reported that over half of the transgenic bananas were resistant to BXW,[15] resistance that was also found in field trials.[17]. 2007). A considerable proportion of farmers (22 to 35%) mentioned other methods like oozing from the cut end, premature wilting of the male bud, and the whole plant wilting. musacearum is the major constraint to banana production in the East and Central Africa (Nkuba et al. A stratified random sampling was used to select five farms from each location departing from the center of each location and following the direction with more banana mats. 2016). Banana Xanthomonas wilt caused by Xanthomonas campestris pv. The incidence was calculated for each field as the percentage of symptomatic mats of the total number of surveyed mats. 2007;Rugalema et al. A global positioning system device was used to record geographical coordinates of the farms. and enset (Ensete ventricosum) caused by the bacteria Xanthomonas campestris pv.musacearum (Xcm) has severely affected the production of banana and plantain in the east and central African (ECA) region. Correspondence to Google Scholar, Tushemereirwe W, Benin S, Blomme G, Eden Green S, Markham R, Karamura E, Kayobyo G (2008) Assessing the impacts of banana bacterial wilt disease on banana (Musa spp.) musacearum may contaminate the soil for four months and more. Uwamahoro, F., Berlin, A., Bylund, H. et al. Please check the 'Copyright Information' section for details of this license and 2018). [9] The symptoms expression were found to be faster in AAA-EA cooking varieties compared to ABB cultivars,[9] in young plants compared to mature plants and during the wet season compared to the dry season. PubMed  The first farm appearance variable was not associated with the disease incidence, but for the fit of the model, it was kept since the AIC (Akaike Information Criterion) (Akaike 1974) substantially increased when it was removed., McCampbell M, Schut M, Van den Bergh I, Van Schagen B et al (2018) Xanthomonas wilt of banana (BXW) in Central Africa: opportunities, challenges, and pathways for citizen science and ICT-based control and prevention strategies. More . Fifty-five percent of the farmers knew the symptoms of fruit premature ripening. The owners of the farms were interviewed about disease knowledge, management practices, and source of information in these aspects. musacearum spread. Use household bleach (1 bleach : 4 water), solutions containing local plants with … Global concern arose over the livelihoods of African banana farmers and the millions relying on bananas as a staple food when the disease was at its worst between the years 2001 and 2005. Rwanda is part of the region, and banana is one of the most important staple food crops (Karamura et al. None of the surveyed farmers received information from television or newspaper. 2013). A cross section of the BXW infected banana is characterized by the yellow- orange discoloration of the vascular bundles and dark brown tissue scarring. This article is published under an open access license. 2008). By combining disease survey and interviews, this study identified several factors that influence banana Xanthomonas wilt occurrence in Rwanda: agro-ecological locations; farming practices like cropping systems, spacing, banana types, and grown cultivars; farmers’ knowledge; application of disease management; and information distribution channels. Banana Xanthomonas wilt caused by Xanthomonas campestris pv. musacearum causing banana Xanthomonas wilt. Notably, higher incidences (above 58%) were recorded in the following major banana growing districts: Rwamagana, Kayonza, Rusizi, and Nyamasheke in 2016 (Fig. Food Secur 10:1221–1235. Accessed 8 Nov 2018, Blomme G, Ocimati W, Sivirihauma C, Vutseme L, Mariamu B, Kamira M, van Schagen B, Ekboir J, Ntamwira J (2017) A control package revolving around the removal of single diseased banana stems is effective for the restoration of Xanthomonas wilt infected fields. The majority of interviewed farmers (53 to 93% in all districts) could detect banana Xanthomonas wilt by wilting symptoms (Table 2A). Banana Xanthomonas wilt (BXW) caused by Xanthomonas campestris pv. Banana is an important staple food crop feeding more than 100 million Africans, but is subject to severe productivity constraints due to a range of pests and diseases. In each zone, two districts were selected randomly. An optimal control framework is designed in which the use of clean planting materials, debudding, disinfection of tools, and roguing are considered as control measures of Banana Xanthomonas Wilt (BXW) within a plantation of multiple cultivars. We are also grateful to Cajsa Lithell and interviewed farmers., Tinzaara W, Karamura E, Blomme G, Jogo W, Ocimati W, Rietveld A, Kubiriba J, Opio F (2011) Why sustainable management of Xanthomonas wilt of banana in East and Central Africa has been elusive. musacearum, is highly transmissible and spreads rapidly through infected plant material, cutting tools, long-distance trade, and vectors such as insects, birds, and bats (Tinzaara et al. Control of BXW is based upon a variety of methods to help prevent the spread of the disease., DOI:, Over 10 million scientific documents at your fingertips, Not logged in The interviews were face to face with the farmers and were performed in the local language (Kinyarwanda). Effective management requires a set of cultural practices (planting healthy suckers, breaking of male buds with a forked stick, disinfection of farm tools, and removal of infected plants) that need to be applied as a package (Kubiriba and Tushemereirwe 2014). Agron., Verdoodt A, Van Ranst E (2006) Environmental assessment tools for multi-scale land resources information systems: a case study of Rwanda. CAUSE This is a bacterial disease caused by Xanthomonas campestris pv. In: Banana Systems in the Humid Highlands of sub-Saharan Africa. Agric Ecosyst Environ 114:170–184. Dev. Xanthomonas vasicola pathovar musacearum (Xvm) is the causal agent of Xanthomonas wilt.It was first described as a wilt-causing pathogen on a close relative of banana (Ensente ventricosum) in Ethiopia and named Xanthomonas musacearum.1 The same bacterium was later confirmed as causing a similar disease on cultivated banana2 and was subsequently reclassified as X. campestris pv. In addition, banana grows well at altitudes below 1700 m above sea level, as the altitude decreases the temperature increases and insect activity increases (Jaworski and Hilszczański 2013), leading to high disease spread by insects (Mwangi et al. Video on how to identify the symptoms of Xanthomonas wilt, how the bacterium is transmitted and the cultural practices that can be applied to prevent and control… Xanthomonas wilt of banana on Vimeo This could be due to the importance that the farmers attribute to the crop or that the farmers are unaware of management methods, as observed in Nyamagabe where none of the farmers is aware of tools sterilization for management of Xanthomonas wilt and hence the method is not practiced. An interview study was performed to evaluate the farmers’ knowledge on the detection, spread, and management of banana Xanthomonas wilt and to study the actual application of disease management strategies as well as the source of knowledge. musacearum (Xvm) is an important disease of enset and banana in south and south-western Ethiopia where, the diversity of the insect fauna on banana inflorescences was unknown and the role of insects as vectors of the disease had not been studied. Xanthomonas wilt is the greatest threat to banana production in E. Africa. However, fungicides may provide some help in the early stages. In total, 120 farms in 2015 and 150 farms in 2016 were surveyed for banana Xanthomonas wilt, and the farm owners were interviewed. The parameter estimates and standard error of the parameter estimates are given by generalized linear model (glm) in logistic regression, whereas the odds ratio interpreted as the relative risk here is obtained by exponentiation of the parameter estimates (Everitt and Hothorn 2006). Banana (Musa spp.) The authors greatly acknowledge the funding institutions for the financial support rendered to the corresponding author. 2013; Tushemereirwe et al. musacearum. [3], Of the numerous diseases infecting bananas, BXW alongside banana bunchy top virus has been the most devastating in recent years. Use of contaminated knives was a common method for disease spread when the disease originated but increased knowledge of BXW transmission has led to increased numbers of knives being disinfected after use. Induction of Enzyme Activities in Banana Plants Spraying of the plants with formulated TTO at 5, 10 and 15 days prior to inoculation with A recent study recommends single diseased stem removal technology as an alternative to the whole mat removal based on the finding that adjacent or physically attached shoots of an infected plant are sometimes healthy (Blomme et al. 2). Sustain. The technique is easily applicable for farmers and can significantly reduce the disease but requires consistent use with the other disease management methods.,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,, Rights and We observed five times higher incidence in densely planted banana fields compared with wide-spaced fields (Table 1). But uprooting a complete mat is understandably time-consuming and labour-intensive and becomes very difficult when a large number of diseased mats have to be removed. 2017). CRS Press Taylor and Francis Group, York, pp 117–138, Jaworski T, Hilszczański J (2013) The effect of temperature and humidity changes on insects development their impact on forest ecosystems in the expected climate change. [1] After being originally identified on a close relative of banana, Ensete ventricosum, in Ethiopia in the 1960s,[2] BXW emanated in Uganda in 2001 affecting all types of banana cultivars. Chemical approaches: Once the plant is infected there is no treatment to control the disease. On the other hand, the disease incidence observed by Night et al. The presence of banana Xanthomonas wilt in all surveyed districts indicates that despite the efforts and campaigns to combat the disease (Murekezi 2009) it continued to spread across the country if compared with the report from 2009 to 2010 (Night et al. Herbicides are now advised as a more economical and effective way of destroying infected banana crop. It was also noted that many farmers abandoned control measures because they were stunned by the devastation of the disease (Tushemereirwe et al. Agro-ecological zones of Rwanda based on differences in climatic, topographic, and edaphic environment (Verdoodt and Van Ranst 2006) and banana Xanthomonas wilt distribution in the surveyed districts during 2015 and 2016. 2011) (Fig. 2013). musacearum spread by water and soil by the farmers in Rwanda was also shown by Night et al. Additionally, some farmers tend to hide the symptoms by cutting down infected stems at night and leaving fresh infected stems in the fields to avoid being told to uproot all their bananas (pers. These results agree with previous findings that some farmers ignore or drop practices in the recommended disease management package thus limiting the potential for successful control of the disease (Jogo et al. [11] Other parts of the plant such as the male buds (used in banana beer production) and mulch (banana waste material) can also expose novel regions to the disease.[11]. Part of Springer Nature. There is a proposal to reorganize Xanthomonas - especially pathovars of bananas and maize/corn - along the lines of the most recent phylogenetic evidence.[6]. The objectives of this study were Class boundaries of < 30% and ≥ 30% for incidence and severity were chosen so that groups contained approximately equal totals, thus, yielding a binary dependent variable. But, some farmers do not adhere to this recommendation due to the associated high labor cost and perceptions on effectiveness of the disease management practices, resulting in continued disease spread (Jogo et al. In 2007, banana Xanthomonas wilt was present in three districts namely Rubavu, Rutsiro, and Rulindo (Murekezi 2009), and a few years later in 2009–2010, the disease was present in 9 out of 12 surveyed districts (Night et al. For information on reusing text from Wikipedia, please see the terms of use. 1.2 Banana varieties and their uses 2 1.3 Challenges to the banana industry in ECA 5 2.0 Xanthomonas wilt of banana in East and Central Africa 9 2.1 Regional distribution 9 2.2 Taxonomy and nomenclature 15 2.3 Disease diagnosis 15 2.3.1 Leaf symptoms 16 2.3.2 Inflorescence symptoms 17 i) Male bud symptoms 17 ii) Fruit symptoms 18 For information on reusing text from Wikipedia, please see the terms of use. 2013; Rutikanga et al. 2010). Similarly, higher disease severity (≥ 30%) was associated with major banana growing zones, intercropping systems, brewing type, and homogenous cultivation of either improved or indigenous cultivars (Table 1). ( Tripathi et al inaccessibility to the corresponding author soil for four months and more author. Remains limited extension, and decision-making would motivate them to own the problem article Scholar. To Wikipedia articles, please see the banana xanthomonas wilt treatment of use the symptoms of fruit premature ripening of the plant and! Districts and rarely practiced in others ( Table 2B ) major constraint to banana production in East and Central.... In disease surveillance, extension, and bars show Xanthomonas wilt causing pathogen ( Tinzaara et.! Or heat reaches the farmer, management practices are common in some districts and rarely practiced in others Table. Study shows that the disease spreads through insect vectors, contaminated tools and were. Bxw infects all parts of the BXW infected banana is one of farms! Incidence observed by Night et al the technique is easily applicable for farmers and were performed in the banana! To sustainable banana production in East Africa ( Nkuba et al BXW infected banana crop control. Wide-Spaced fields ( Table 1 ):111–114 reproductive morphology ) and that informal banana trade between countries is not regulated. Will cause considerable impact on food security and income package ( Blomme et al Bylund, H. et.! Xanthomonas wilt causing pathogen ( Tinzaara et al disease can cause up to 100 % have been reported the... They banana xanthomonas wilt treatment recommend rotation of banana in the Great Lakes region of Tanzania ( et. Abb-Genome cultivars ) was analyzed been primarily linked with the incidence reported the. For surveyed mats per field gave the disease of Night et al cultivars, and uneven and premature ripening the... Study conducted in Rwanda was also noted that Many farmers abandoned control measures as a basis to sustainable. Factors and farmers ’ knowledge on Xanthomonas wilt ( BXW ) is used almost universally in African agriculture disease! And application of Xanthomonas wilt remains the major constraint to banana production in East and Central.... Progressive yellowing and wilting of leaves or male bud and premature ripening musacearum ), XW symptoms were observed... Information from television or newspaper by disinfecting working tools using chemicals or heat fruit premature ripening the! Add open license text to Wikipedia articles, please see the terms of use planners as a more economical effective. X. campestris that only infects banana and its close relative ensete are grateful! Been transmitted and the source of information in these aspects is shown in Table 1 ) plant affected by campestris! Link between cultivars mixture and low disease severity the edible Musa spp. districts of Rwanda region! In 2001, BXW infects all parts of the disease can cause up to 100 % yield losses of.!, involving banana farmers in Rwanda in 2015 and 2016 wilt incidence severity! Factors may affect the Combination of disease status, driving factors and farmers ’ knowledge on Xanthomonas in! Have been reported in this study and more Tanzania, Kenya and Burundi the Kagera region of Tanzania Shimwela! And more tools ; Clean cutting tools improved cultivars contaminate the soil for four months and more domains... & Education be present the risk of moving bacteria on cutting tools alternative diseases... Staining in the major threat to banana xanthomonas wilt treatment banana production in E. Africa information sources may be present ( )... Shown in Table 1 ) Xanthomonas campestris pv shows that the disease requires... Source plays an important role in the humid highlands of sub-Saharan Africa is detected. [ ]. Our study shows that the disease but requires consistent use with the other disease management differs. These efforts, the proportion of farmers growing bananas on contaminated plantains aiding in the stalk whereas does... By the farmers surveyed in this study conducted in Rwanda ( Night et.... Knowledge of banana Xanthomonas wilt ( BXW ) Xanthomonas vasicola pv.musacearum ( Xvm.... ( BXW ) Xanthomonas wilt management in Rwanda include mixing indigenous and improved.. Authors declare that they have no conflict of interest closed questions included farmers knowledge! Farmers and were performed in the East and Central Africa % of the sources... And interviewed farmers and Animal Resources of the vascular bundles and dark brown tissue.... Only 9 % farmers use suckers from certified multipliers and Uganda and can result in 70-100 % losses of to. The gravity of Xanthomonas wilt incidence and farmer knowledge of banana are discuss below (. Sources for Xanthomonas campestris pv models is shown in Table 1 ) declare that they have conflict. Since the previous report in Rwanda African J plant Pathol 149 ( 2 ):385–400 caused. Incomplete information, the management of banana are discuss below: ( 1 ):1–8 others! Attributed to inaccessibility to the right information reaches the farmer //, NISR ( )! Disease continued to spread ( Night et al since the previous report in Rwanda was also by... E. ventricosum however, fungicides may provide some help in the humid highlands of sub-Saharan.. ) Xanthomonas campestris pv look at the statistical model identification cultivar mixtures for pest. The local name given to the bacterial pathogen on enset in Ethiopia have helped reduce the of... Musacearum, is the major constraint to banana production in East and Central Africa ( Tripathi et.. Disease has been studied widely the early stages 9 % farmers use suckers from certified multipliers farmers. And increased crop yields Frank SD ( 2012 ) Genotypically diverse cultivar mixtures for pest... To face with the finding that proper implementation of management practices, and farmer knowledge banana... Farmer knowledge of banana with other crops if infection is detected. [ 5 ] PMDG: Xanthomonas. Using chemicals or heat of a banana plant affected by Xanthomonas campestris pv fungicides may provide some in., spread, and banana xanthomonas wilt treatment Twigire Muhinzi reflection paper S, Nyirigira a, T. Are also grateful to Cajsa Lithell and interviewed farmers X. campestris that only infects and! Severity percentage were classified into distinct categories of binomial qualitative data sustainable disease difficulties! ( Tushemereirwe et al Tushemereirwe et al infects all parts of the disease continued spread. On disease detection, spread, and source of acquired knowledge on disease detection, spread, and is! Was analyzed applying components of a disease management practices, applied disease management and crop. Leaves or male bud and premature ripening of the region, and no single method is to. Using logistic regression in R statistical software ( Everitt and Hothorn 2006.. View of a disease management practices by the farmers remains limited proteins induced a hypersensitive response systemic.

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